To ensure that the evaluation system adopted is credible and acceptable, faculty members must have a strong hand in its development.
1. Multiple methods :
The most important consideration in teaching evaluation, both for improvement purposes and for personnel decisions, is the use of multiple methods of teaching evaluation involving multiple sources of data.
2. Faculty, departmental and school responsibilities:
To ensure that the evaluation system adopted is credible and acceptable, faculty members must have a strong hand in its development. Before departments and schools adopt teaching evaluation systems, the faculty members should determine their criteria for effective teaching. Departments and schools can then take responsibility for developing their own evaluation methods and evaluation criteria. Since different disciplines require different methods and settings for instruction, they require different methods and criteria for evaluation. This is also true for interdisciplinary instruction. Teaching evaluation systems can be flexible to accommodate diversity in instructional methods (e.g., lecture, discussion, lab, case study, small group interaction, practicum, studio, field work, clinical work, etc.). To promote compatibility within the university, standards should be reviewed, understood, and accepted by all groups involved in the promotion and tenure review process.
3. Individualizing teaching evaluation.
Effective teaching evaluation must be individualized. A uniform system discriminates against some individuals, so a plan sensitive to individual variation should be developed. A faculty member should provide information about his/her contributions and accomplishments as a teacher on a longitudinal basis over his/her teaching career. Consideration can then be given to changes in emphasis and interest that will naturally occur in an academic career.
4. What may be assessed.
Teaching evaluation has as its central element the assessment of the quality of classroom instruction. Since teaching includes activities broader than classroom instruction, evaluation of teaching must assess more than classroom performance. While departments and schools may identify additional items, among the teaching activities that may be assessed are the following:
• quality, amount, and level of classroom instruction (including shared instruction)
• development of curricula, new courses, and classroom materials;
• supervision and mentoring of graduate students, including chairing of dissertations;
• service on graduate examination and dissertation committees;
• one-on-one consultation with students, including supervision of independent study and readings courses;
• supervision of teaching assistants in undergraduate courses;
• conduct and supervision of laboratory instruction;
• supervision of undergraduate and graduate research;
• advising students in the major;
• supervision of field work; and
• supervision of clinical and practicum experiences.
1. End-of-course rating forms and written comments. Generally, students are able to report on the extent to which a teacher appears prepared for class sessions, communicates clearly, stimulates interest, and demonstrates enthusiasm and respect for students; research shows that student responses on these dimensions are valid and reliable. Generally, students are less able to judge the knowledge of the instructor or scholarly content and currency of a course.
2. Alumni letters and surveys. Many institutions request information from recent alumni (e.g., those who graduated two years ago and/or five years ago). Alumni have a perspective for evaluating both individual faculty members and the department's program. Alumni have the additional advantage of being able to judge the relevance of course work to their present situation. It should be noted, however, that information from alumni may do no more than agree with present students' assessment of teaching; studies have found alumni ratings of faculty correlate highly with those of current students.
3. Focus-group interviews, exit interviews, and surveys of students. Focus-group interviews and "exit interviews" may be used to provide information about faculty members and courses for personnel decisions and to strengthen a department's program. Interviews can provide a depth and breadth of information, elicit unanticipated responses, and allow for clarification of student satisfaction and concerns. Focus-group interviews, exit interviews, and surveys of graduating students are especially helpful in strengthening a department's program.
4. Mid-course and periodic student feedback. Feedback from students throughout the term is particularly helpful for teaching improvement purposes. Faculty may ask students to provide informal assessments of their teaching effectiveness at mid-semester by means of focus-group interviews with teaching consultants or through the use of student rating forms, especially ones that include open-ended questions. Throughout the term, faculty also may invite students to comment informally -- perhaps by e-mail or by writing short evaluations at the end of a class period. Mid-course feedback should not be used for summative evaluation unless an instructor chooses to include the feedback in a teaching dossier.
5. Evaluation of student learning. Throughout the term, faculty members may act as "classroom researchers," gathering measures of student learning in order to improve their teaching. Faculty may also wish to provide examples of student learning as evidence of their teaching effectiveness for personnel decisions.
In most institutions, faculty and administrators have relied on student ratings of teaching effectiveness for teaching improvement purposes and for personnel decisions. Now, however, surveys about how teaching is evaluated on college and university campuses demonstrate an increase in use of faculty colleagues as raters of teaching effectiveness. Colleague review of teaching can play as significant a role as does peer evaluation of research.
1. Evaluation of classroom teaching -- Colleagues can provide important evaluative information through classroom visits. In particular, a colleague's observation of such aspects of teaching as appropriateness of materials and methods, breadth and depth of material covered, the relation of such material to the syllabus and goals of the course, and incorporation of recent developments in the discipline can offer a more informed appraisal of the instructor's mastery of content than can students' perceptions. There is consensus that peer observation has enjoyed more success as a strategy for teaching improvement than for personnel decisions. When used for personnel decisions, it is important to have explicit criteria by which colleagues make evaluations.
2. Evaluation of course materials -- Colleagues can evaluate course materials, such as syllabi, textbooks, handouts, assignments, graded exams, graded papers, etc. In the visual and performing arts, colleagues may evaluate faculty-directed art exhibits, theater and dance productions, musical ensembles, and individual performances when these activities are directly related to a faculty member's instructional activities. Examination by colleagues offers several advantages: It properly uses faculty expertise, can be done in a reasonable period of time, and can be done anonymously (just as is done with peer review of research). It is also appealing because it can be used for both personnel decisions and for teaching improvement purposes.
3. Evaluation of instructional contributions -- Colleagues may be in the most advantageous position to evaluate such teaching-related activities as curriculum development, supervision of student research, participation in colleagues' and teaching assistants' teaching development, articles on teaching in disciplinary journals and other publications, and authorship of textbooks and other instructional materials.
The development of a teaching dossier (or portfolio) is a method that allows individuals to collect and display multiple sources of information regarding their teaching effectiveness for examination by others. It contributes both to sound personnel decisions and to the professional development of individual faculty members. A dossier is a "factual description of a professor's major strengths and teaching achievements. It describes documents and materials which collectively suggest the scope and quality of a professor's teaching performance".
Evaluation of teaching is not a science; there is still much to learn. However, as indicated in this brief set of guidelines, there is already a considerable body of knowledge about teaching evaluation. The academic community has a strong incentive to add to that knowledge since we will not be able to recognize and reward teaching adequately until we craft a better system for evaluating it.
Students earn degrees by completing the prescribed number and kinds of credits for the relevant degree. Credits are earned only if all the requirements for the course are completed and an acceptable grade is received. A student earns no credit for a course in which he/she obtains an unacceptable grade. The academic performance of students is primarily determined by the level of achievement in courses and programs. For some courses or programs, however, students are also evaluated in the related nonacademic areas of professional suitability, lifestyle and clinical proficiency.
• It addresses the areas of performance or competency that are truly important to professional social work and carrying out the agency's mission and goals. The criteria used to evaluate the student are clear and objective to the degree possible.
• The evaluation criteria, standards, and the agency's preferred practices and outcomes are made known to the student at the beginning of the practicum or at the beginning of the time period to be evaluated.
• The student's performance is compared to written standards and criteria, rather than to some unstated or implied standards.
• The student has been given ongoing feedback and warnings of poor performance prior to the formal evaluation.
• The performance criteria and standards are realistic given the student's level.
• The evaluation can cite and describe examples of performance that form the basis of the ratings.
• The evaluation gives consideration to extenuating circumstances that may influence the evaluation (e.g., the student had limited opportunity to learn or demonstrate certain skills and the supervisor had limited time to observe student's performance).
• The evaluation process identifies and records differences in level of performance among students who are different in terms of their motivation, competency, knowledge, and specific skills.
• The evaluation takes into consideration the nature and complexity of the assignments given to the student.
• The evaluation recognizes student growth and performance as well as student problems or need for continued learning.
Evaluation of research holds particular challenges. First is the need to involve experts in order to judge the quality of research.
Evaluation of research holds particular challenges. First is the need to involve experts in order to judge the quality of research. This brings in the need for peer review. Second is the unpredictable nature of research outcomes and their application, including the fact that only a few lines of research will ultimately have any significant impact. The length of time required to see impacts and effects can be beyond that which is useful for present-day management and policy decisions. Impacts are usually not directly attributable to one piece of research. As a result, traditional economic techniques undervalue the impact of research. Yet public research organizations are increasingly aware that they must demonstrate performance, impact and quality to their parent funding bodies, to their private clients and to the international research community.
The collaboration between universities and the industry is increasingly perceived as a vehicle to enhance innovation through knowledge exchange. This is evident by a significant increase in studies that investigate the topic from different perspectives. However, this body of knowledge is still described as fragmented and lacks efficient comprehensive view. To address this gap, we employed a systematic procedure to review the literature on universities–industry collaboration (UIC). The review resulted in identifying five key aspects, which underpinned the theory of UIC. We integrate these key aspects into an overarching process framework, which together with the review, provide a substantial contribution by creating an integrated analysis of the state of literature concerning this phenomenon. Several research avenues are reported as distilled from the analysis.
Collaborations can create benefits and opportunities.
• Private companies benefit from access to academic researchers, facilities, and resources.
• Academic institutions benefit from external financial support for research and education.
• Investigators benefit from financial support of their research.
• Local communities can benefit from the influx of capital and the jobs created or supported by private money.
• All parties can benefit from the exchange of knowledge, data, technology, and experience.
All students have the right to a quality learning environment. However in many countries, the educational...
All students have the right to a quality learning environment. However in many countries, the educational process is compromised by poorly constructed facilities that are vulnerable to both natural and man-made hazards, by inflexible and inaccessible learning spaces, and by badly lit, poorly constructed and inadequately ventilated classrooms. While governments agree that quality educational facilities are an important policy concern, no consensus has been reached on how to define quality. Some case studies show that involving multiple stakeholders from both public and private sectors in the design, planning and management of educational spaces can have a positive impact on student motivation and educational outcomes; however there is little consensus about how to effectively measure quality.
During strategic long-range educational planning, unmet facility space needs often emerge. The goal of educational planning is to develop, clarify, or review the educational mission, vision, philosophy, curriculum, and instructional delivery. Educational planning may involve a variety of institution and community workshops and surveys to identify and clarify needs and sharpen the vision of the district. Long-range planning activities, such as demographic studies, financing options, site acquisitions, and community partnering opportunities are often initiated by the district administration as a response to the results of educational planning. An outcome of long-range planning is the development of a comprehensive capital improvement program to address unmet facility needs.
The design phase of the process, which includes schematic design, design development, and construction documents and specifications, can last from six months to one year. Each step in the design process involves more detailed and specific information about the technical aspects of the building systems, components, and assemblies. The design process requires institution board decisions and approval, with each phase offering more detailed descriptions of the scope, budget, and schedule. The products of this phase include sketches, drawings, models, and technical reports, which are shared with the institution and community through public hearings, workshops, and other forms of public relations and community involvement. Community participation during the earliest stages of the design phase can be as critical for stakeholder support as it was in the educational planning process.
Human Resource Management in an Education context:
• Self-awareness of the Human Resource Management importance in the education institutions.
• Learning effective methods and approaches in Human Resource Management.
• Deepening knowledge of the Human Resource Management tools and applications.
• Gaining experience with the Human Resource Management case studies from different organization.
• Increasing awareness of human resource management in the education institutions.
• Enhancing and developing communication skills, leadership foundations.
• Cooperating and learning in international context.
• Sharing experience in the area of Human Resource Management.
The course is structured in 14 training modules, designed to demonstrate the participants how to recognize, and be aware of the relationship of Human Resource Management and Education. Each module will incorporate current theories of Human Resource Management and will demonstrate the influence on education.
• Module 1 Human Capital Management Definitions
• Module 2 SWOT(Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and traits) analysis
• Module 3 Human Capital Management Case studies
• Module 4 Team building
• Module 5 Motivation
• Module 6 Team engagement
• Module 7 Leadership
• Module 8 Soft skills
• Module 9 Negotiation skills
• Module 10 Training and development
• Module 11 Coaching and Mentoring
• Module 12 Role plays
• Module 13 Case studies
• Module 14 Discussions
This criterion helps gather data on the policies and practices of an institution in the matter of planning human resources,
This criterion helps gather data on the policies and practices of an institution in the matter of planning human resources, recruitment, training, performance appraisal, financial management and the overall role of leadership in institution building.
The focus of this criterion is on the following Key Aspects:
• Institutional Vision and Leadership
• Strategy Development and Deployment
• Faculty Empowerment Strategies
• Financial Management and Resource Mobilization
• Internal Quality Assurance System (IQAS)
Institutional Vision and Leadership
Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision.
Strategy Development and Deployment
The leadership provides clear vision and mission to the institution. The functions of the institution and its academic and administrative units are governed by the principles of participation and transparency. Formulation of development objectives, directives and guidelines with specific plans for implementation by aligning the academic and administrative aspects improves the overall quality of the Institutional provisions.
Faculty Empowerment Strategies
The process of planning human resources including recruitment, performance appraisal and planning professional development programmes and seeking appropriate feedback, analysis of responses and ensure that they form the basis for planning. Efforts are made to upgrade the professional competence of the staff. There are mechanisms evolved for regular performance appraisal of staff.
Financial Management and Resource Mobilization
Budgeting and optimum utilization of finance, including mobilization of resources are the issues considered under this key aspect. There are established procedures and processes for planning and allocation of financial resources. The institution has developed strategies for mobilizing resources and ensures transparency in financial management of the institution. The income and expenditure of the institution are subjected to regular internal and external audit.
Internal Quality Assurance System (IQAS)
The internal quality assurance systems of HEIs are Self-regulated responsibilities of the higher education institutions, aimed at continuous improvement of quality and achieving academic excellence. The institution has mechanisms for academic auditing. The institution adopts quality management strategies in all academic and administrative aspects.
The skills developed through a good physical education programme are critical in ensuring that students have success
Physical - Education is an all encompassing term, including fitness, skills, movement, dance, recreation, health, games and sport plus the appropriate values and knowledge of each.
The skills developed through a good physical education programme are critical in ensuring that students have success in many of the sport and leisure activities common to the community.
Physical - Education has a major role to play in the development of young people. It is an integral part of the total education of any student and is closely linked to other creative and learning experiences and skill acquisition. It makes a significant contribution to the all - round harmonious development of the mind and body. The program also help students develop the competencies and beliefs necessary for incorporating regular physical activities into their lives. Through involvement in a well-taught physical-education program, students can achieve physical and personal benefits. Therefore, the planning and management of the Physical-Education Curriculum in Schools should always have children as the focus of attention, with the overall purpose of providing rich and varied experiences. Physical Education also includes sports education. Physical Education is also the process through which sport, outdoor adventure activities, dance, gymnastics, aquatics and games are used by physical educators to help students learn motor skills and to learn about and achieve physical fitness where this is possible. Physical Education activities also assist the school to develop personal and social skill in students.
Sports is a 'human activity that involves specific administration, organization and an historical background of rules which define the object and limit the pattern of human behavior; it involves competition or challenge and a definite outcome primarily determined by physical skill'. Theoretically, because of its insistence upon rules and equality (disregarding the prejudice that can exist within the framework of sport). It involves: set rules, area and time; set positions for team players; complex physical activity which are applied throughout the set time; serious training and preparation; and competition between individuals or teams.
Sequence of Instructions
The development of motor skills and physical fitness and knowledge must begin in the earliest years of primary school. During these years, the students are physically and intellectually capable of benefiting from instruction in Physical education and are highly motivated and enthusiastic about learning.
With these thoughts in mind and to better plan for the development of our young persons and arising from a number of discussions, observations, experiences, incidents,
It is being recommended that the policy consider the following:
d. Health & Safety
h. Sports for the Physically/Mentally Challenged
i. Resources/Financial Assistance
Through Physical Education, psychosocial development may be nurtured and opportunities created to develop interpersonal relationships, personal growth and self-esteem. Objectives such as good sportsmanship, cooperation, team work, giving and receiving support, appreciation for regular exercise, emotional control, leadership and fellowship skills and the development of a positive self concept can be furthered.
• Students display positive attitudes towards an active lifestyle
• Exhibit better health habits
• Students develop personal physical fitness and enhance bone growth
• Exhibit more positive attitudes about school, physical activity and self
• Play better with others
• Have less aggressive behaviors
• Perform as well or better academically
Goals of the Physical Education & Sports
The aim of organized physical education and sport programs is to create an environment that stimulates selected movement experiences resulting in desirable responses that contribute to the optimal development of the individual's potentialities in all phases of life. The objective of the Schools Physical Education and Sports is to provide guidelines to institutions for development of the following:
• To help students achieve a health-enhancing life of physical activity
• To help understand and respect individual differences among people in physical settings
• Integrate Physical Education and Sports into the Curriculum
• To provide for a safe physical environment
• To provide students with a variety of activities that will enhance life-long learning and participation
• Promote physical excellence
For Physical Education to be meaningful or to be of value, it must be offered with regularity. The importance of daily periods should be recognized and achieved wherever possible. The following sports categories should be available in the institutions: Cricket, Football, Volleyball, Basketball, Swimming, Dance and Table Tennis..etc.
Attire should be appropriate. An important concern is that the clothing ensures safety when students are engaged in physical activity.
• For both male and female: shorts, T-shirts and skirts for girls • Also appropriate footwear should be worn
The provision of adequate physical resources including facilities, equipment and maintenance can help in influencing attitudes and facilitating program success. The Physical Education and Sports Program's learning environment suggests that facilities should be available to students engaged in large-muscle activity involving climbing, jumping, skipping, kicking, throwing, leaping and catching, and those also engaged in fundamental motor-skills activities and others in low organization games, various cooperative; team activities and competition.
• Proper facilities and equipment should be available to ensure the safety and health of the athletes
• Provision of protective equipment
• Provisions should be made for indoor sporting facilities/infrastructure
It has long been recognized that the qualifications and qualities of a good teacher and coach are synonymous. Personnel recruitment, selection and training are very important. In selecting and hiring, the most qualified personnel should be recruited. They include consideration of the special qualifications for teaching and coaching, the general qualifications of physical educators and the unique qualifications needed.
• Physical Education Teachers should be trained/qualified
• In-service training should be offered as well
• Uniforms including shoes allowance should be provided for Physical Education Teachers. Trained/qualified Physical Education Teachers should be employed at every Secondary School: 1 male/1 female
• At least one Physical Education & Sports Officer should be made available to each district
• Coaches should be made available to schools to assist with the preparation of teams for training
• Practicing teachers and coaches should be certified First Aiders
• Student-athlete who represent their school or the country at sporting activities should not be at a disadvantage in terms of their academic work; therefore arrangements should be made to provide special tuition for students
Health and Safety
Competitive sport should contribute to the health and well being of the student. Everything possible should be done to protect the Health and Safety of the participants.
• Medical supervision should be available at all major events
• Playing areas should be kept clean and safe
• Games should be scheduled that result in equal and safe competition
• Injured players should be examined by a physician and administered proper treatment
• A physician should be present at all games and practices involving the most strenuous contact sport
• An annual medical examination should be required for all participants
• Only equipment that is fully certified as offering the best protection for the student-athlete should be purchased and utilized
• All protective equipment should fit players properly
• Competition should be scheduled between teams of comparable ability
• Playing fields and surfaces should meet standards for size and safety for the participants
• Competition should not be played until players have a minimum of 3 weeks of physical conditioning and training
• Insurance policies should cover injuries in sport
• Institute registration forms should include a section for medical history. The medical certificate should be signed by a doctor
Sports for the Physically/Mentally challenged
Persons with disabilities can receive the same benefits as their non-disabled peer group, if Adapted Sports Activities are included in the institution sports program. Students in the adapted/development sport program need activities that have carry-over value. They may continue exercise programs in the future, but they also need training in sports and games that will be useful in life.
• Prepare the challenged for sport competition particularly where no opportunities and programs now exist
• Provide special training for volunteer coaches to enable them to work with youngsters in physical fitness, recreation and sport activities
• Plan and design appropriate and adequate facilities, equipment and supplies that would cater for the needs of the challenged
The fundamental purpose of quality higher education is to enhance the skills of students and, ultimately, to prepare them for ...
The fundamental purpose of quality higher education is to enhance the skills of students and, ultimately, to prepare them for employment after Institution. Due to the current skills shortage in India, this point is of great significance. The higher education sector must enhance the employability of its graduates as part of a wider strategy to increase the skills base. Further, the dynamic and competitive nature of organizations demands that universities deliver high-quality work-ready graduates. Abilities should exceed classroom-based knowledge and technical skill. To address this shortage, higher education institutions need to provide quality educational learning experiences that bridge the gap between the skills learned in the classroom and those required for the workplace. Institutions now have the challenge of embedding work-integrated learning (WIL) and then demonstrating its value.
Evaluation is central to continuous improvement efforts in the education sector. It is the‚ process of determining the merit, worth, or significance of things and its ‚most important purpose is not to prove, but to improve. As reviewed by Harvey and Green, one conceptualization of quality in the educational setting is the transformative view, which judges quality as the extent to which fundamental changes have taken place. Quality is measured according to the extent to which the student experience is enhanced; the extent to which the educational experience has been valuable in the development of abilities, knowledge, and skills. Placement programs are implemented with the purpose of bringing about such fundamental changes. The nature of the implementation places the student at both the center of the learning process and the center of evaluation. Consequently, educational evaluation frequently relies upon information gathered via student surveys, which require students to assess teacher behavior and course design. This information then serves to illustrate the quality and effectiveness of teaching and course design, which reports assumes a causal link. The approach relies heavily upon the assumption that the data gathered about the quality of teaching or course design represents the quality of learning that has been produced.
The core objective of work placement programs is the development of more relevant student abilities. It aims to transfer theory to practice, to develop generic skills and improve graduate employability. These work-readiness skills may include self-confidence, critical thinking, effective communication, problem-solving, teamwork, and professionalism. A comprehensive evaluation would be required to determine if a work placement unit is achieving this core objective.
Work placement units are yet to arrive at a comprehensive evidence-based framework applicable to the evaluation of WIL (incorporating work placements). With respect to the effectiveness of work placements, where evaluations have been undertaken, the results are mixed. The sensitivity of evaluation for achieving work readiness skills should be most apparent in the placement context. There, the value of the experience is based solely on the integration of learning in the workplace. What remains unclear is the extent to which the programs contribute to work readiness outcomes. This is due to the lack of a comprehensive evaluative framework to assess their quality and effectiveness.
Several unifying evaluation frameworks have been offered. For example, Stuffle beam developed the Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluations (CIPP) framework. Smith (2010) proposed the Alignment, Authenticity, Integration, and Administration (AAIA) framework and Richardson et al. (2009) developed the Context, Capability Driven, Action Learning, Reflective, Developmental, Student Centered (CCARDS) assessment framework. However, none of these models incorporates graduate level feedback. As noted by Lees (2002), rather than testing abilities, a more satisfactory measure of work placement evaluation is to survey graduates’ satisfaction with their program of study and their reflections on the skills they have developed.
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