World’s Most Prominent Recognition
for Educational Institutions

Data Management

is the development and execution of architectures ...

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Data Management
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Data management is the development and execution of architectures, policies, practices and procedures in order to manage the information lifecycle needs of an enterprise in an effective manner. Data life cycle management (DLM) is a policy-based approach to managing the flow of an information system's data throughout its life cycle: from creation and initial storage to the time when it becomes obsolete and is deleted. Several vendors offer DLM products but effective data management involves well-thought-out procedures and adherence to best practices as well as applications.

There are various approaches to data management. Master data management (MDM), for example, is a comprehensive method of enabling an enterprise to link all of its critical data to one file, called a master file, that provides a common point of reference. The effective management of corporate data has grown in importance as businesses are subject to an increasing number of compliance regulations. Furthermore, the sheer volume of data that must be managed by organizations has increased so markedly that it is sometimes referred to as big data.

Big data management is the organization, administration and governance of large volumes of both structured and unstructured data. Corporations, government agencies and other organizations employ big data management strategies to help them contend with fast-growing pools of data, typically involving manyterabytes or even petabytes of information and a variety of data types.

Assessment

by the turn of the millennium almost every economically developed country....

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Assessment
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By the turn of the millennium almost every economically developed country understood the importance of measuring the performance of public education with comparable indicators, collected at reasonable costs. These indicators have to be linked to the activities of individuals making up the institutions and used to develop incentive systems that provide motivation for teachers, school principals and school providers to improve their performance. The efficient operation of public education institutions is contingent on having access to appropriate performance indicators and on linking this body of information to a well functioning evaluation and incentive system. First, theoretical issues arising in connection with planning school accountability, assessment and evaluation systems are discussed. Next, the current Hungarian school evaluation system is described and the problems inherent in the system are identified. Finally, a plan is proposed for improving the system.

The public education “industry” can be described as a mix of several types of inputs and outputs. In the most general sense, the output of public education is the students’ knowledge and skills in the broadest sense of the word, which they need in order to become successful members of society and to contribute to the development of the country. The traditional view contends that the effectiveness of public education can be adequately assessed in terms of the resources used in public education: the number of teachers, the number of hours worked, the amount of grants per student, the buildings, classrooms, textbooks and computers used by education services, the number of teachers completing in-service training, the available curricula, etc. This view, however, relies on a false assumption, namely that “if a country spends a lot (or more than in the past) on public education, the system is guaranteed to function successfully (or more successfully than in the past).” Let us quote one of the main observations of the McKinsey report: “In fact, almost every country in the OECD substantially increased its spending on education over the same period, in addition to launching multiple initiatives to spend this money more effectively. Yet very few of the school systems in the OECD achieved significant improvements in performance. One study based on the results of national and international assessments showed that in many school systems performance had either flat-lined or deteriorated”

Educational inputs are not the right measure of educational effectiveness. It is not only the quantity of resources that matters but also their composition and the way they are used. Educational resources can also be wasted. The efficiency approach is different: we want to understand the relationship between educational inputs and outputs. The education system functions well if it functions effectively. We want to provide feedback for every stakeholder — parents and students, school providers, teachers and principals, as well as taxpayers — in order to help them in identifying problems in the functioning of the educational system and improving performance. What do we need to take into account if we want to design a well performing school assessment programme? There is a long list of problems that we need to tackle. First of all, appropriate indicators have to be found. What kind of indicators shall we use? At first sight several inexpensive indicators are available: end of semester and year grades, exam results, grade retention, school continuation rates, etc. These data are, however, inadequate for our purposes as they do not allow inter-institutional comparisons. Better measures can be obtained from the labour market: returns to knowledge and skills acquired at a given school, i.e., employment rates, career advancement, wage and wage increase. This method, however, faces several practical obstacles: it would be rather costly to collect these kinds of data; there is no simple way of linking this information to the various levels of education (even less so to individual institutions). Even if this problem could be overcome, the results could only reach the educational institution involved after a considerable delay. Also this information cannot be directly used when plans for the improvement of educational practice are to be designed. Another choice is the use of standardised tests which are designed to assess the basic components of individual competencies. This appears to be the most promising method. The most appropriate tests are those suitable for assessing general skills that underlie overall learning abilities (i.e., the ability to acquire new knowledge of any kind). Examples include tests assessing reading literacy (the ability to understand texts, which is the most basic prerequisite for all types of learning), mathematical literacy and logical reasoning. A standardised testing programme has several advantages: a) it allows interinstitutional comparison, b) the tests can be linked to universal benchmarks (e.g., at age x or in grade y students are expected to attain at least level z), c) the standardised test results can provide information which constitutes meaningful feedback for all stakeholders of the education system (schools, parents and school providers), i.e., information that helps them decide what is to be done if more than a pre-specified proportion of students fail to attain level z by the age of x or in grade y in a given institution. The information directly evaluates the institution, the proper locus of feedback and correction. The use of standards based tests is also not without problems. There is enormous variation across individuals, which has a large impact on test results. The result of the assessment is therefore uninterpretable unless individual variation is controlled for. Individual level assessment is subject to a very large error term (the results are influenced by random factors). It is therefore desirable to aggregate the test results at school level. The aggregation of individual level results helps to reduce the measurement error but the volatility of aggregate data can have a significant distorting effect on the cross-sectional and longitudinal comparison of groups (especially for schools, school sites and classes with small student rolls2), where student composition may be highly instable at any one moment. Absences and other random effects may have significant consequences, and even relatively minor temporal changes (a student leaving or a new student enrolling) can lead to major temporal fluctuations in estimation results. These problems must be countered by a well-designed system. How to measure the school’s contribution to student achievement? Above all, we would like to highlight the importance of a theoretical framework. A general theoretical framework that appears to be appropriate for the purpose is the human capital model, which takes into account the factors that have contributed to the attainment of students’ skills (measured by the test scores).

Certification

refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object....

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Certification
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Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, assessment, or audit. Accreditation is a specific organization's process of certification.

Certification is broadly used for understanding the “Quality Status” of an institution. In the context of Higher Education, the Certification status indicates that the particular Higher Educational Institutions (HEI) – a College, a University, or any other recognised Unit therein, meets the standards of quality as set by the Certifying Authority, in terms of its performance, related to the educational processes and outcomes, covering the curriculum, teaching-learning, evaluation, faculty, research, infrastructure, learning resources, organisation, governance, financial well being and student services.

The Certifying Authority "Recruitment Analysis Council" is a focal body established under Section 8 of Companies Act 2014 to rate/certify any organization or Institution based on the quality of standards. The Council will act as consortium for the Government/Private Organizations and Educational Institutions to interact with the Society and enhances the skill development according to the time and situation.

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